Kazakhstan - General Information


Kazakhstan is located in the north-west of Central Asia and the south-east of Europe. Kazakhstan is the 9th largest country in the world in terms of territory.

The land borders of Kazachstan are more than 12 000 kilometers. To the north and west Kazakhstan borders with Russia, to the south - with Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, to the east - with China. Territory of a Kazachstan borders the Caspian and Aral seas.

Kazakhstan is a Presidential Republic of parliamentary type. The head of state is the President, the head of government - the Prime Minister. Parliament consists of the Senate and the Council - Majilis. Senate is composed of deputies appointed by the President of the Republic - two persons from each region. Majilis consists of 107 deputies. Kazakhstan is a unitary state which consists of 14 regions. Capital of Kazakhstan - Astana.

Typical species: wild boar, squirrel, wolverine, lynx, snow leopard, brown bear, wolf, deer, antelope, ground squirrel, hamster, vole, marmots, hares, argali, jerboa, fox, hedgehogs.

In Kazakhstan there are more than 90 kinds of minerals. Country produces oil, gas, uranium, iron ore, lead, zinc, chromium, gold, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, iron, manganese, aluminum, carbon black and non-ferrous metals and other.

The territory of Kazakhstan is mostly flat - more than 80% of the country is occupied by dry steppes. In the south-east and east of the country are located the foothills of the Altai, Tarbagatay Dzhungar and Tien Shan. Khan-Tengri peak (7010 m.) located on the border of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, is the highest point in the country. Total area is 2717.3 thousand sq. km. (ninth place in the world).

The climate is continental, dry. Main feature - a big difference between winter and summer temperatures, dry air, low precipitation in most parts of country, long harsh winters and short summers in the north, short winters and hot summers in the south. The average July temperature of +19 ° C in the north and +30 ° C in the south, in January - from -18 ° C to -3 ° C in the north and south respectively.
The best time to visit the country is considered to be spring (April to June) and autumn (September to November), in the summer there can be too hot

In January 1, 2010, the population of Kazakhstan amounted to 16 million 196 thousand 800 people. In particular, in the largest city of the Republic - Almaty ( 1.4 m). Kazakhs - 63,1%, Russian - 23,7%, Uzbeks - 2.8%, Ukrainians - 2.1%, the Uighurs - 1.4%, Tatars - 1.3% Germans - 1.1%, other ethnicities - 4.5%. In general, in the Republic of Kazakhstan is home to over 120 nationalities.

Official holidays in Kazakhstan:

January 1 - New Year's Eve
March 8 - International Women's Day.
March 22 - Nauryz
May 1 - Unity of the People
May 9 - Victory Day
June 10 - Day of the Capital
August 30 - Constitution Day
October 25 - Republic Day
December 16 - Independence Day
Such religious holidays like Ramadan, Eid al-Adha, Easter and Christmas also marked the days off.

The territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited about a million years ago. According to the results of excavations in settlement of Botay in Northern Kazakhstan, which belong to the Neolithic period, in the territory of Kazakhstan was formed first nomadic civilization. In the Bronze Age the territory of Kazakhstan was inhabited by tribes and cultures Androna Begazy-Dandybai. They were engaged in agriculture and animal husbandry. At the same time there begun production of bronze tools and decorations .

People lived in large settlements, protected by walls. Around the IX-VIII centuries BC the territory of Kazakhstan was subdued by the Saka tribes (Scythians). In VI-II centuries BC Sakas formed the first state with its center in the Zhetysu (Seven Rivers) in south-eastern Kazakhstan. Sakas had written language, mythology and a well-developed culture.

In the Middle Ages the territory of Kazakhstan was occupied by Turkic Kingdoms. After the Mongol invasion in the XIV -XV centuries were established Golden Horde, White Horde, Mogolistan and Nogai Horde on the territory of Kazachstan.

In XVII- XVIII was the period of Jungar-Kazakh wars. After joining Russia, Kazakhstan became part of the Soviet Union and later became independent.